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Education
 
The Faculty of Dental Medicine awards the D.M.D. (Doctor Medicinae Dentariae) degree to students who have completed all requirements. Graduates of the faculty are licensed by the Ministry of Health to practice dentistry in Israel and may specialize in the different fields of Dental Medicine.

Course of Study
The program of study extends over six years, which are divided into three main stages:

Pre-Medical Studies: Conducted within the framework of the faculties of Science, Medicine and Dental Medicine, the courses at this level include Biology, General Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Introduction to Histology, Medical Biophysics, Reading of Medical Texts, Mathematics, Statistics, Basic Programming, Behavioral Sciences, English and Hebrew (for overseas students). 
Pre-Clinical Studies: Conducted within the framework of the faculties of Medicine and Dental Medicine, these include the following subjects: Anatomy, Immunology, Biochemistry, Growth and Development, Genetics, Histology, Dental Histology, Oral Chemistry, Microbiology, Dental Morphology, Pharmacology, Physiology, Oral Physiology, General Pathology, Oral Pathology, Psychology and Nutrition. 
Students who successfully complete these two stages are eligible to receive the Bachelor of Medical Sciences (B.Med.Sc.) degree.
 
Clinical Studies include the following: Diagnostics, Endodontics, Orthodontics, Epidemiology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Periodontics, Pedodontics, Oral Medicine, Oral Radiology, Community Dental Medicine, Oral Rehabilitation, Dental Materials, Hospital Dental Medicine. Instruction includes practical training and treatment of patients at either the Ein Kerem clinic or another clinic, as determined by the faculty.  

Curriculum Overview
The 1st year
The main emphasis of the studies in the first of three pre-clinical years is in fundamentals of natural sciences, medicine and dental medicine. Practically all the studies that year are of pre-medical nature. The courses this year are taught by the Faculties of Natural Sciences, Medicine and Dental Medicine.
 
The Faculty of Natural Sciences is responsible for the basic courses in Calculus, General Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Mechanics and Electricity, Waves and Optics. In these courses the student will study basic scientific principles, which will help them to better understand the normal human body processes. Most of the courses are given in the first semester.
 
Lecturers from the Faculty of Medicine teach the basic course of “Human Biology”, which concerns with topics from the fields of cellular biology, developmental biology and general genetics. This is the main course where the new students learn biological-scientific language and scientific literature. In the course “Structure and Function of Biomolecules” the students are introduced to the basics of biochemistry. In addition, a primary course in “Practical Imaging” is also given by the Faculty of Medicine, in which students learn the basics of radiology and clinical imaging. 
 
Within the courses that are given by the Faculty of Dental Medicine, the course “Introduction to Oral and Dental Health” benefits the students with initial encounters with basic clinical and preventive dentistry in lectures held by specialists from the department of community dentistry. Later this year the students take part in two courses that involve practical experiences. In the “Dental Morphology” course the students learn to carve anatomically teeth models, in addition to broad encounter with morphology and evolution of teeth and dentition. In the course “Introduction to Manual Dexterity in Dentistry” the students meet the working environment of the dentist and practice basic procedures like tooth cavity preparation and develop the basic skills required from the dentist. 
 
The students are also introduced to the research aspects of dentistry. During the course “Introduction to Research in Dental Medicine” the students meet the researchers of the faculty, who present them with the latest scientific advances in the field. In addition, the Faculty of Dental Medicine gives additional introductive courses in Statistics, Immunology and Psychology.
 
 The 2nd year
 
In the second year, introductory courses in medical sciences are given, based on the basic science courses that are learned in the first year. The vast majority of the second year courses are given by the Faculty of Medicine, and studied with medical students. 
 
The most extensive course in the second year is “Human Anatomy". It is given throughout the year and includes theoretical lessons on structure of human body and practical training by humans’ corpse’s dissections. The complementary “Human Neuroanatomy and Neurobiology” course is also given in the second year and introduces the students to the Central Nervous System. The basics of embryonic development are taught in the “Human Embryology” course, and the essentials of psychological development in the “Human Growth and Development” course. 
 
Some of the first semester’s courses have consecutives in the second semester. For example, the first semester’s “Histology A” course, in which the basics of tissue histology are taught, is followed by the second semester’s “Histology B” course, in which students learn the systems histology of the human body. The course “Biochemistry; Bioenergetics and Metabolism”, which is given in the first semester and focuses on metabolic pathways and mechanisms, also has a consecutive course in the second semester that deals with metabolic pathways pathologies. The second semester’s “Cellular Physiology” course has a consecutive course in the 3rd year, which focuses on the physiology of systems in the human body. 
 
Similarly, the Faculty of Dental Medicine also gives two introductory courses in clinical dentistry in the second year. In the first semester, the course “Introduction to Clinical Dentistry A” gives an overview to different dental expertise and encounters the students with specialists in each dental field and with their work. In the second semester, in the course “Introduction to Clinical Dentistry B” dental medicine students experience work in real clinics and meet patients. The students are expected to show empathy and to have positive communication with the patients. They will also have an opportunity to experience dental team work when assisting students during their clinical years while working in the clinic. 
  
The 3rd year
 
In the third year students focus primarily on basic sciences in dentistry and complement the basic knowledge needed from the medical discipline.  
 
Most third year courses are aimed to deepen the pre-clinical knowledge the students acquired in the previous years, by teaching them common pathologies and the modes of treatment, while they  are already familiar with the normal processes in the human body.  For instance the “General Pathology” course is, in fact, an extension of the histology courses, and acquaints the students with pathological mechanisms causing morphological changes in the body’s tissues and organs. A consecutive course on “Oral and Systemic Pathology” is given in the second semester. The “Clinical Teratology” course focuses on possible environmental effects which can damage normal embryonic development and lead to defects. In the “Human Genetics” course, in addition to mechanisms of genetic heredity, the students encounter genetic diseases and their modes of treatment. The “Pharmacology” course provides the students with the basics of pharmaceutical sciences and the use of drugs in treating different pathologies. 
 
During the third year, the Faculty of Dental Medicine gives courses that are analogous to the ones given by the Faculty of Medicine in the previous years, but focuses on the systems of the oral cavity: “Oral Biology”, “Oral Ecology”, Oral Physiology”, “Oral and Systemic Pathology” and “Oral Biochemistry”. In addition, wider aspects of clinical and research fields of dentistry are given in several courses: a wider insight into the pathophysiology of bones is presented to the students in the “Bone” course, and the “Tissue engineering of the Craniofacial Complex” course provides up to date knowledge on the spectra of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. The “Caries” course summarizes this wide spread oral infectious disease from the clinical and research points of view. 
 
The students are prepared for their clinical studies in the following year by taking the “Dental Materials” course, in which they are presented with different types of materials used in the dentist’s clinic. This course is also aimed at assisting the students to implement this theoretical knowledge in the clinic. The course in Radiology is aimed at exposing the students to imaging equipment in dentistry and to allow basic experience.
 
Finally, by the end of the third year, each student will write an integrative review on a medical or dental related scientific topic.
 
Successfully completing three pre-clinical years entitles the student to a B.Med.Sc degree. 
 
The 4th year
 
The 4th year is the first of three clinical years. In this year, in addition to acquiring and practicing their theoretical knowledge, the students encounter their first patients.
 
The Department of Prosthodontics gives three basic courses in restorative dentistry (Basic Skills – Fixed Partial Denture, Basic Skills – Occlusion and Basic Skills – Restorative Dentistry), which are aimed at providing the students with basic techniques and principles of dental treatment. Students that will successfully complete   their practical exams will begin treating patients. 
 
Similarly, the Departments of Periodontics, Endodontics, Oral Surgery, Orthodontics and Community Dentistry all give yearly courses focusing on the fundamentals of their expertise, and include practical tutoring and, in part, allow practicing simple clinical cases.
 
In the Department of Oral Health the students learn the pathophysiological basis of   common diseases in the oral cavity, how to perform a comprehensive clinical examination and to give a differential diagnosis. In addition, the Department of Oral Health gives complementary courses in Radiology and Infectious Diseases.
 
Practical tutoring in all the clinical courses is given in small groups. Each group is led by a senior instructor who is a specialist in their field and is accompanied by a younger instructor. The clinical experience is given at the students' clinics in the Faculty of Dental Medicine, which are fully equipped with all required instruments and materials. Each student has an independent unit that simulates a dentist’s clinic. 
 
In order to be entitled to a D.M.D. degree, each student must submit and write an original research thesis. The yearly course: “Introduction for Basic and Clinical Research” provides the students with the tools to understand the principles of basic and clinical research.
 
Throughout the three clinical years there is a commitment to develop the students' social responsibility and awareness.  The clinical course “Oral Health Promotion for Underserved Needed Population” is an elective, intended for students who wish to broaden their community involvement and to help the needy population.
 
The 5th year
 
Fifth year students continue to specialize in different fields of dentistry. This year clinical studies in the following fields are added: Pediatric Dentistry, Orthodontics, Endodontic and Community Dentistry. In most courses there are clinical experiences as well as theoretical studies.
 
The fifth year's studies focus on comprehensive treatment. The clinical practice in longitudinal courses in Prosthodontics, Periodontics, Endodontic, and Oral Medicine are jointly delivered, and instructors from each department are present in the students' clinic throughout the clinical experience. Similarly, the courses in Pediatric Dentistry and Community Dentistry have common clinical experiences with emphasis on integrative dental treatment.
 
Lectures and seminars are also focused on integration between the different areas. The course in implants is jointly delivered by the departments of Maxillofacial Surgery, Periodontics and Prosthodontics. In the course “Comprehensive Treatment of Patients" students present seminars on an assigned topic, and following their presentation, a discussion takes place involving all students and lecture coordinators from different disciplines. The students learn how to implement their theoretical knowledge into practical decision making when planning the overall treatment for a patient.
 
In the fifth year, rotation in the different faculty departments begins. For one to two weeks small groups of students (up to six) rotate in the Surgery, Oral Medicine, Radiology, and Periodontics departments.  During rotation the students observe minor and major surgery procedures performed by specialists in different fields, and take active part in clinical activity (anamnesis, clinical examination, diagnosis and perform simple procedures) under the supervision of specialists and interns. 
 
In the fifth year courses the following sub-disciplines are added: Removable Prostheses - preclinical course, provided by the Department of Prosthodontics, comprised of lectures, self-learning, lab procedures and clinical demonstrations. The courses “Orofacial Pain” and “Maxillofacial Rehabilitation” are theoretical and introduce students to these sub-disciplines. 
 
The course “Oral Health Promotion for Underserved Needed Population” continues from the previous year and allows students to apply the new skills and knowledge that they acquired. In addition, in the fifth year, the department of Community Dentistry operates a dental community project, which incorporates fieldwork.
 
The 6th year
 
In the last year at the Faculty of Dental Medicine the focus is on imparting clinical knowledge and experience to the students. In this year the students experience advanced treatment techniques, in integrative clinics for both adults and children.
 
In the sixth year, for the first time, removable dentures clinic is added, where students learn how to treat mainly the older population that needs complete and partial removable dentures. Clinical training will be held in small groups under the guidance of specialists from the Prosthodontics department. Rotation in different departments continues and students will take part in the treatment of children as part of their rotation in the Pediatric Dentistry department. 
 
This year the Department of Oral Medicine provides a theoretical course in dealing with dental emergencies, in which students will learn about common emergencies in dental clinics and will learn how to respond to them. The department of Oral Medicine will also teach a course on sedation, focusing on anesthesia and sedative techniques.
 
At the end of the sixth year, students will take theoretical exams in all courses that examine the material they studied throughout the clinical years. In addition to these exams and ongoing clinical requirements, students will also have clinical examination in several courses, evaluating their professional abilities. 
 
After fulfilling their clinical and academic requirements, students will undergo external examinations. Students who will pass these exams will receive a temporary license to practice dentistry in Israel. To receive a permanent license, students must submit a DMD thesis, which is a research study in the field of dentistry.
 
Students that successfully complete their sixth year obligations and submit a D.M.D. thesis will be granted a Doctor of Dental Medicine degree. 

Professional Competencies for the New General Dental Practitioner
The overall learning outcomes and competencies of the D.M.D degree of the Hebrew University and Hadassah Faculty of Dental Medicine are:
Graduates must be competent to:  
1.    Domain 1: Interpersonal Communication and Social Skills
1.1  Establish appropriate patient-dentist interpersonal and communicational skills. Show compassion, respect and sensitivity to the patient, including when appropriate a relationship with a parent or caregiver.
1.2  Identify patient expectations and needs. Consider psychosocial factors of the patient and identify potential issues relevant to the patient care.
1.3  Sharing information and professional knowledge with both the patient and other professionals, verbally and in writing, including being able to negotiate and give and receive constructive criticism.
1.4  Applying principles of stress management to oneself, to patients and to the dental team as appropriate.
1.5  Have knowledge of behavioral sciences including behavioral factors (including factors such as ethnicity and gender) that facilitate the delivery of dental care.
 
2.    Domain 2: Knowledge base, Information and Information Literacy
2.1  Apply the knowledge and understand the scientific basis of dentistry, including the relevant biomedical sciences, the mechanisms of knowledge acquisition, scientific method and evaluation of evidence.
2.2  Apply the knowledge and understand the biological and disease processes in the body to a sufficient depth to be able to exploit new emerging biological technologies in clinical practice.
2.3  Apply the knowledge and understand the etiology and processes of oral and cranio-facial pathologies to facilitate their prevention, diagnosis and management.
2.4  Apply the knowledge and understand the Pharmacology and therapeutics relevant to clinical dental practice and its application thereto, and be familiar with pharmacology in general medicine.
2.5  Apply the knowledge and understand the science and the ability to apply dental biomaterials and their limitations and be aware of environmental issues relevant to their use.
 
3.    Domain3:  Clinical Information gathering, Diagnosis and Treatment Planning
3.1  Obtaining informed consent for all forms of treatment and acknowledging that informed consent serves as a summary of the information provided during an interactive communication process with the patient, parents, caregiver or legal guardian.
3.2  Obtain and interpret the findings of a comprehensive patient interview to assess past and current disease, medical and dental risk status and outcome preferences.
3.3  Perform and interpret the findings of a comprehensive intra and extra oral examination.
3.4  Select, obtain, and interpret diagnostic tools.
3.5  Recognize the manifestations of systemic diseases and how they may impact on the management and provision of dental and cranio-facial care.
3.6  Analyze diagnostic and risk assessment data and formulate comprehensive preventive, treatment and/or referral options and treatment plan to address patients’ needs.
 
4.    Domain4:  Prevention and Health Promotion
 
4.1  Applying the principles of health promotion and disease prevention via comprehensive preventive measures to individuals and the community according to their risk assessment status.
4.2  Evaluate and manage current models of oral health care management and delivery.
4.3  Understanding the complex interactions between oral health, nutrition, general health, drugs and diseases that can have an impact on oral health care and oral diseases and vice versa.
4.4  Have knowledge of the organization and provision of health care in the community and in the specialist hospital service in the country of training.
4.5  Have knowledge of the prevalence of the significant / common oral and cranio-facial conditions in the country of training and practice.
4.6  Have knowledge of the social, cultural and environmental factors which contribute to health or illness.
4.7  Have knowledge of the strategies to manage barriers to dental care for medical comprised, disabled, elderly, socially deprived and ethnic minority groups.
4.8  Provide prevention, intervention, and educa­tional strategies.
4.9  Promote health by engaging patients in the management of their own care.
 
5.    Domain 5: Establishing, and Maintaining Oral health
    
5.1    Evaluate outcomes of comprehensive dental care, develop recall strategies and determine prognoses.
5.2    Assess and manage the unique needs relating to the oral health care of special needs patients.
5.3    Select and administer or prescribe pharmacological agents in the treatment of dental patients.
5.4    Prevent, diagnose, and manage pain and anxiety in the dental patient.
5.5    Prevent, diagnose, and manage periodontal diseases.
5.6    Prevent, diagnose and manage caries.
5.7    Provide restorative care to preserve tooth structure, replace missing or defective tooth structure, maintain function and esthetics, and promote soft and hard tissue health.
5.8    Prevent, diagnose and manage developmental or acquired malocclusion and space management needs.
5.9    Manage the replacement of missing teeth for the partially or completely edentulous patient.
5.10 Prevent, diagnose and manage pulpal and periradicular diseases.
5.11 Prevent, diagnose and manage oral and cranio-facial soft tissue, osseous disorders, including cancer.
5.12 Recognize and manage medical emergencies.
5.13 Recognize and manage dental emergencies.
5.14 Communicate and manage dental laboratory procedures in support of patient care.
5.15 Employing appropriate management for oro-facial pain, sensory changes, discomfort and psychological distress.
 
6.    Domain 6: Professionalism
   
6.1  Acknowledge that the patient is the center of care and that all interactions, including diagnosis, treatment planning and treatment, must focus in the patient’s best interests.
6.2  Apply the principles of ethical decision making, integrity, professional responsibility, and protecting patient confidentiality.
6.3  Utilize critical thinking and problem-solving skills in the care of patients, scientific inquiry and research methodology.
6.4  Evaluate scientific literature and integrate best research outcomes for the delivery of evidence-based patient-centered care.
6.5  To plan and conduct research work, to collect, analyze, and discuss the results based on scientific writing principles.
6.6  Apply principles of ethic, legal and regulatory concepts related to the provision and/or support of oral health care services, including informed consent.
6.7  Apply the basic principles and philosophies of practice management, evaluate models of oral health care management and delivery.
6.8  Understand how to function successfully as the leader of the oral health care team.
6.9  Recognize appropriate professional behavior towards all members of the dental team.
6.10 Utilize self-assessment as a part of ongoing self-directed and lifelong learning.
6.11 Recognizing their own limitations, and refer to a specialist as needed.
6.12 Utilize universal infection control guidelines for all clinical procedures.
6.13 Manage and maintain a safe working environment, with regard to health and safety and clinical risk management.
 
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